Using PING for backup and Restore Linux OS Images PING (Ping is not Ghost) is a live Linux ISO, created to take image backups of HDD/partitions, either locally or over the network. CONTINUE AFTER ERROR: Just tp make sure log backup happens even though some meta data page corrupted. You can access SQL Server Architecture based interview questions and General DBA related interview questions in attached links. How do you find the RESTORE HISTORY of the database? Mount the nfs share. Then you should need to restore backup on your UAT or test database server and enable time based recovery for applying all archives before drop command execution. I myself would have preference for a Gentoo, ArchLinux or Slackware user candidate an Ubuntu user, you can also mention Debian despite it doesn’t require too much knowledge either. This is of course the worst scenario but preventive measures must be taken in advance. A bare metal restore plan is simply a plan laid out by a CentOS administrator to get vital systems online with all data intact. Marked transactions are very useful to recover the database to a logically consistent point. It can be burnt on a CD and booted, or integrated into a PXE / RIS environment. Ubuntu is a great Linux distribution but it can be chosen by both advanced and new users and the idea is to portray yourself as an advanced user without allowing the employer to doubt about it. (A common backup problem is when the administrator password is changed, causing backup software to fail) Go into backup software. The Crontab to schedule tasks, a practical example of its application would be to launch any monitoring task, or to run Rsync for backup purposes. Mount the nfs share. See the link for more information, Interview questions on SQL Server database backups, restores and recovery – Part IV, Use looping construct to Instantiate the SMO class library and list the database properties. The following T-SQL provides you a list of last 30 days data of database restore history. I’m a Database technologist having 11+ years of rich, hands-on experience on Database technologies. Windows 7 has four backup/restore/repair options, each with a different purpose: System Restore lets you return the system's programs and settings to the way they were at an earlier time, using restore points created by the System Protection feature. a.COLD backup will be taken by shutting down the database, where as HOT backup will be taken while database is up and running If you are in search of Commvault interview questions, then you have landed at the right place. This set includes questions on LILO (Linux Loader), how to shrink the size of LVM, enhancing password security, Cron and Anacron, how to convert Linux computer into a router, YUM, ext2 and ext3 file systems, and much more. Here do not answer “Ubuntu” even if it your chosen Linux distribution. My specialty lies in designing & implementing High availability solutions and cross-platform DB Migration. How can I backup my Windows 10 installation from Linux in order to restore it later? But normally this scenario must be planned in advance and a “Maintenance” screen must be able to redirect traffic through redirection if something happens, in this case if we have only a production server I would take only minutes to try to solve the problem while a coworker prepares the CDP restoration, my time limit to solve the problem should be determined by CDP restoration process, I would restore one or two versions previous to the last CDP backup while keeping the updated database. The following T-SQL provides you the backup information and LSN details of a given database. Example of Linux Dump Command. I would restore one or two versions previous to the last CDP backup while keeping the updated database. It stores a row for each backup media set. You can construct the T-SQL using backup system table to analyze the growth of the database over a given timeframe. The aim is to restore the service to customers immediately, then to research the problem if there was enough time to backup the failing system. How do you do a differential backup file restore? Using PING for backup and Restore Linux OS Images PING (Ping is not Ghost) is a live Linux ISO, created to take image backups of HDD/partitions, either locally or over the network. 3. What Is San Media Server? With No Recovery. Depending on the type of services, if possible I would apply restrictive policies first allowing only necessary traffic, redirecting accesses to non used ports, applying defensive rules to most common attacks. It stores one row for each data file or log file of a database. When DWBR process writes the changed data blocks to the datafile, the same data blocks are written to redo log files to hot backup. Security breaches, networking issues, full disks or partitions, permission issues, DNS issues, conflictive updates or software additions, network structure changes, wrong security policies, hardware upgrades, electrical problems. Ivan Vanney has over 2 years as writer for LinuxHint, he is co-founder of the freelance services marketplace GIGopen.com where he works as a sysadmin. SQL Server: Database Backup & Restore Interview Questions and Answers (Day-3) SQL Server: Have a large Database, use Striped Database Backup & Restore; SQL Server: Script to find all Backup History Information; SQL Server: Database Log Shipping Interview Questions and … This article is based on SQL Server backup & recovery interview questions and answers. Is a full back up being done nightly or is an incremental system in place? Since this is very wide topic, I will try to cover all the sub topics in 2-3 blogs. Restore sda using disk image backup. SQL Server Backup and Restore Interview Questions . It stores one row for each filegroup in a database. Planning a SQL Server Backup and Restore strategy in a multi-server environment using PowerShell and T-SQL, The following T-SQL provides the most recent backup completion time of all databases along with the database name, The following PowerShell script provides the most recent backup completion time of all databases with the database name. In this article, we’ll discuss the following topics: MSDB database is a log-store and it stores a complete history of all SQL Server backup-and-restore operations. What would you do before a hacking attack? I hope you found this article useful, keep following LinuxHint for more tips and updates on Linux and networking. This application introduces the most frequently-used backup/restore tools provided in Red Hat Enterprise Linux and helps you understand the common usage of each backup/restore tool by examples and how to choose an appropriate tool for a specific scenario. To restore a differential backup, the options are … How does the database recovery model impact database backups? Oracle Backup and Recovery Interview Questions and Answers will guide us that Oracle backup means to making copies of data so that these additional copies may be used to restore the original after a data loss event. Thus far, we’ve covered most of the concepts of “database backup-and-restore” operations. Powered by LiquidWeb Web Hosting 0. Another modern approach may be a cloud backup provider. How do you measure the database backup or database restore operation progress? This blog contains series of most commonly asked SQL Server DBA Interview Questions regarding one of the important DBA tasks- Database Backups and Restore. backup & recovery interview questions 1 .What is the difference between cold and hot backup? To measure the backup operation progress or estimate the time and percentage completed, you can query the DMV—sys.dm_exec_requests. What would you do if a production server fails? The following questionnaire is focused on sysadmin tasks emulating real scenarios, questions would be made in a face to face conversational interview in which the employer wants to learn the candidate reactions before specific problems, contrary to written exams aiming to test the candidate’s knowledge on specific commands. What are the most common problems for servers? Backups have two distinct purposes. On the other hand, auditing a server with pentesting tools such as Nmap, Nexpose, Nessus and more is an excellent help to help sysadmins and developers to keep everything updated and safe. This guide was created as an overview of the Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter. Restore sda using disk image backup. Let’s say newly created directory /nfsshare. $ The LSN is viewable using the following system-tables and using the restore command: In the following example, you can see that the LSN is ordered in a Zig-Zag fashion. Use this guide to help prepare to obtain a job related to linux administration. To restore from the backup disk image on nfs (such as if there is a disk failure on disk sda and the system can’t boot), boot into rescue mode with networking. How do you list the last 30 days restore history at the instance level? 3. Standby\ Read only. The following T-SQL get the latest successful backups and it includes columns such as database name, backup start time, backup end time, a derived column named duration (mins), backup file location, type of the backup, backup size, and compressed backup size (if used). These Interview Questions will definitely help you in your interview. How do you get recent database backup time for each database across multiple servers using PowerShell? Ans: First the database recovery model is responsible for the retention of the transaction log entries. Answer: In SQL Server, a database backup is a point in time copy of database data and code that we can use to restore and recover the data in case of disaster, failure or any requirement where the database backup needs to be restored to another environment. Emc Vmax Interview Questions ; Question 6. A Database backup is a copy of SQL Server data […] The following table highlights the high-level detail about the backup-and-restore operation: To reduce the size of the backup and restore history tables, delete the entries of backup sets that are older than the specified date-time. This article is based on SQL Server backup & recovery interview questions and answers. By. How would you backup a server in real time? Contains one row for each marked transaction that has been committed. 1. In this article, we’ll see the how the backup-and-restore meta-data tables store the information in the MSDB database. 2.If we take snapshot backup via Netbackup or networker, in order to perform GRT level backup, again client plugin should be installed, where as in Veeam without any plugin installation at client level we can take snapshot backup and restore file level and So on. You can access SQL Server Architecture based interview questions and General DBA related interview questions in attached links. This article shows top interview questions for jobs related to Linux. In this blog, we have collected the most frequently asked Commvault Interview Questions and Answers for both freshers and experienced, which will help you to ace the interview. System Tar and Restore is a versatile system backup script for Linux systems. The aim is to analyse packets both for inconsistencies revealing offensive attempts and analyse traffic and balancing to optimize services and the network structure. Being able to restore to the same system (computer, hardware) and even hard drive would enough. There are some CDP (Continuous Data Protection) great options like R1Soft. Oracle Backup and Recovery Interview Questions and Answers will guide us that Oracle backup means to making copies of data so that these additional copies may be used to restore the original after a data loss event. In my last article I gave you an overview on Public key Infrastructure (PKI) and shared the steps to generate a self signed certificate using openssl in Linux. We divided the Interview Questions into four categories as Basic, Admin, Technical and Command based Questions. How do you measure the database growth using backup size? In information technology, a backup or the process of backing up is making copies of data that may be used to restore the original after a data loss event. A DDOS attack may demand protection implemented from the gateway devices, some iptable rules may help but are not the best options, Apache includes mods to afford this kind of attacks, immediately we may apply external protection such as cloudflare. |   GDPR   |   Terms of Use   |   Privacy. What are the restore options available in SQL Server? Why more redo is generated during hot backup? The restore command performs the exact inverse function of dump. Backing up MySQL Database using mysqldump and then restoring if when needed.Also explained to encrypt the DB backup file. These Interview Questions will definitely help you in your interview. A full backup of a file system is being restored and subsequent incremental backups layered is being kept on top of it. How do you create and restore a marked transaction? Database Research & Development: Get success in the interview by reading a SQL Server, advance Database backup & restore interviews questions and answers (Day-2) What Linux distributions do you like and why? For more advanced trainees it can be a desktop reference, and a collection of the base knowledge needed to proceed with system and network administration. 1210 Kelly Park Cir, Morgan Hill, CA 95037. System Recovery. Backups have two distinct purposes. Here we have compiled Linux Interview Questions and Answers and presented them in this blog based on the opinion of Linux Experts. The primary purpose is to recover data after its loss, be it … How to perform a page level restore in SQL Server, Database Backup and Restore process in SQL Server – series intro, An overview of the process of SQL Server backup-and-restore, Understanding the SQL Server Data Management Life Cycle, Understanding SQL Server database recovery models, Discussing Backup and Restore Automation using SQLCMD and SQL Server agent, Understanding Database snapshots vs Database backups in SQL Server, SqlPackage.exe – Automate SQL Server Database Restoration using bacpac with PowerShell or Batch techniques, How to perform a Page Level Restore in SQL Server, Backup Linux SQL Server databases using PowerShell and Windows task scheduler, SQL Server Database backup and restore operations using the Cloud, Tail-Log Backup and Restore in SQL Server, SQL Server Database Backup and Restore reports, Database Filegroup(s) and Piecemeal restores in SQL Server, In-Memory Optimized database backup and restore in SQL Server, Understanding Backup and Restore operations in SQL Server Docker Containers, Backup and Restore operations with SQL Server 2017 on Docker containers using Azure Data Studio, Interview questions on SQL Server database backups, restores and recovery – Part I, Interview questions on SQL Server database backups, restores and recovery – Part II, Interview questions on SQL Server database backups, restores and recovery – Part III, A quick overview of database audit in SQL, How to set up Azure Data Sync between Azure SQL databases and on-premises SQL Server, How to perform Azure SQL database Import/Export operations using PowerShell, Top 50 collection of articles on SQL interview questions, SQL interview questions on database backups, restores and recovery – Part I, SQL interview questions on database backups, restores and recovery – Part III, SQL interview questions on database backups, restores and recovery – Part II, Different ways to SQL delete duplicate rows from a SQL Table, How to UPDATE from a SELECT statement in SQL Server, SQL Server table hints – WITH (NOLOCK) best practices, SQL multiple joins for beginners with examples. Backup and Restore (or Recovery) strategies for SQL Server database. Main aspects of server and network structuration, Debian Linux Job Interview Questions and Answers, Linux Networking Job Interview Questions and Answers. Feel free to counter on any point that is … It stores one row for each restore operation, It stores one row per page that failed with the error 823 or 824 4. It is applicable to only those databases where the recovery model is set to full or bulk-logged. There are many great articles on the Internet about questions for candidates for jobs requiring Linux users, but most of them contain questions for new or workstation users. It is recommended to run sp_delete_backuphistory frequently to clean-up the entries from the MSDB database. This following T-SQL provides you with information about a particular database with the restore history and source, destination, start, end time and type of the restore operation. 11. To create a marked transaction and restore the marked transaction follow the steps: Use “BEGIN TRANSACTION WITH MARK” clause to mark the transaction and perform the DML operations, To verify the marked transaction, run the following command. Multiple options to transposing rows into columns, SQL Not Equal Operator introduction and examples, SQL Server functions for converting a String to a Date, DELETE CASCADE and UPDATE CASCADE in SQL Server foreign key, How to backup and restore MySQL databases using the mysqldump command, INSERT INTO SELECT statement overview and examples, How to copy tables from one database to another in SQL Server, Using the SQL Coalesce function in SQL Server, SQL Server Transaction Log Backup, Truncate and Shrink Operations, Six different methods to copy tables between databases in SQL Server, How to implement error handling in SQL Server, Working with the SQL Server command line (sqlcmd), Methods to avoid the SQL divide by zero error, Query optimization techniques in SQL Server: tips and tricks, How to create and configure a linked server in SQL Server Management Studio, SQL replace: How to replace ASCII special characters in SQL Server, How to identify slow running queries in SQL Server, How to implement array-like functionality in SQL Server, SQL Server stored procedures for beginners, Database table partitioning in SQL Server, How to determine free space and file size for SQL Server databases, Using PowerShell to split a string into an array, How to install SQL Server Express edition, How to recover SQL Server data from accidental UPDATE and DELETE operations, How to quickly search for SQL database data and objects, Synchronize SQL Server databases in different remote sources, Recover SQL data from a dropped table without backups, How to restore specific table(s) from a SQL Server database backup, Recover deleted SQL data from transaction logs, How to recover SQL Server data from accidental updates without backups, Automatically compare and synchronize SQL Server data, Quickly convert SQL code to language-specific client code, How to recover a single table from a SQL Server database backup, Recover data lost due to a TRUNCATE operation without backups, How to recover SQL Server data from accidental DELETE, TRUNCATE and DROP operations, Reverting your SQL Server database back to a specific point in time, Migrate a SQL Server database to a newer version of SQL Server, How to restore a SQL Server database backup to an older version of SQL Server. Database and files must be backuped separately allowing to immediately replace the old installation restoring the updated database. Parvinder Pal - October 18, 2016. Depending on the resources it is possible to have 2 synchronized servers online to route the traffic in case one of them fails, normally it requires too much resources since two different geographical locations are needed (otherwise there is not sense). If that’s not a possibility Iptables is the first step, checking the access policies such as ssh as root or even changing important ports. Provides all the functionality of a Media Server without the ability to backup and restore data from remote clients. Restore full database backup WITH NORECOVERY option. How do you list the last 30 days restore history at the instance level? It depends on the resources, FortiGate and CISCO have great options to manage and protect networks. Here we have compiled a set of most asked Linux interview questions so that you can face the Linux interview with confidence. These additional copies are typically called oracle backups. The technologies currently working on are SQL Server, PowerShell, Oracle and MongoDB. Then you should need to restore backup on your UAT or test database server and enable time based recovery for applying all archives before drop command execution. This can be done using looping construct in PowerShell with very few lines of code. Also, discuss several T-SQL statements to derive most useful information with reference to data purge, database growth, backup report, restore history and more. Further data upon request: By "Installation" I mean the "full partition" (or partitions) required to return Windows to the moment the cloning was made. To determine whether your customers need to outsource their backup and disaster recovery services, they need to answer these questions, such as when was their most recent backup test, and allow you to explain the value you can provide in each area. The metrics are useful for capacity planning and forecasting. SQL Server: Database Backup & Restore Interview Questions and Answers (Day-3) SQL Server: Have a large Database, use Striped Database Backup & Restore; SQL Server: Script to find all Backup History Information; SQL Server: Database Log Shipping Interview Questions and … During the hot backup, when a tablespace is put up in the backup mode, all the datafiles that belongs to the tablespace get their checkpoint frozen. The table in-house the filegroup configuration of the database. 5. Tweet on Twitter. Question: 4. This article is an example of how to use Dump and Restore for Linux Backup and we will specifically use the “dump” and “restore” commands to backup and recover files from a CentOS machine. Answer : Manages backups and restores of Client and the Media Server's local data to direct attached or SAN-attached storage (tape/disk). The T-SQL script used in the below-mentioned link is used to calculate the capacity planning of the databases. Verify and record the schedule (time of backup jobs), name of job, and what files/folders are being backed up. I am Microsoft Certified Professional and backed with a Degree in Master of Computer Application. Additionally depending on the type of service additional measures may be applied like security mods for apache or specific protection for mail servers. Applicable to only those databases where the recovery model is set to full or bulk-logged 99 individual files found article. Some meta data page corrupted problems that can prevent Windows 7 from starting or running successfully can i backup Windows. Hot backup < database name > successful backup blog contains series of most asked Linux interview with.! Video explain the answer for SQL Server the administrator password is changed, causing backup software to fail Go... It also talks about capturing the baseline database growth metrics Linux and.! Time and percentage completed type of service additional measures may be a better option before a potential.... And Detach/Attach database? `` lies in designing & implementing High availability solutions cross-platform... Additionally depending on the type of service additional measures may be a cloud provider... But preventive measures must be taken in advance logically consistent point while keeping the updated.... And OSSEC would help to analyze malicious traffic over the network structure Clustered! Online with all data intact get vital systems online with all data intact the DB backup.... Here do not answer “ Ubuntu ” even if it your chosen Linux distribution, location, and details... Script provides the most granular details of the databases article shows top interview questions 1.What is difference. An instance, apply archives up to 3:55 PM here separately allowing to immediately replace the installation... You list the last 30 days restore history at the instance level one row each. For jobs related to Linux this blog contains backup and restore interview questions in linux of most commonly asked SQL Server backup & recovery questions. About capturing the baseline database growth using backup system table provides the output with estimation. The T-SQL using backup size ] 1210 Kelly Park Cir, Morgan Hill, 95037. Required for database backup time for each marked transaction old data to reduce the size location. It to new ( encrypted ) drive database technologies CA 95037 all data intact honeypots are also an option database. Help to analyze malicious traffic over the network structure transactions are very useful to recover the database time! Scenario but preventive measures must be backup by a CentOS administrator to get vital systems online with all data.! This can be burnt on a CD and booted, or integrated into a PXE RIS... Backup happens even though some meta data page corrupted being done nightly or is an incremental in! Cross-Platform DB Migration installation restoring the backup and restore interview questions in linux database options to manage and protect networks provides the with! Directories updated through incremental backups layered is being kept on top of it data file or log file a... Needed.Also explained to encrypt the DB backup file would help to analyze the growth of database! And restore a backup, you can access SQL Server interview questions for jobs related to core SQL Server.! Logically consistent point a production Server fails individual files, CA 95037 “ Ubuntu ” even if it chosen! And General DBA related interview backup and restore interview questions in linux in attached links regarding one of the concepts “! Baseline database growth using backup size Detection system like Snort and OSSEC would to. Windows 10 installation from Linux in order to restore to the last 30 days restore history at the level... Database recovery model impact database backups how can i backup my Windows 10 installation from Linux in order restore. Storing 99 individual files implementing High availability solutions and cross-platform DB Migration Command based questions structuration, Debian Job. Depending on the resources, FortiGate and CISCO have great options to manage and protect networks you list... Logically consistent point prevent Windows 7 from starting or running successfully Linux distributions showing better knowledge of. ; the system repair disk fixes problems that can prevent Windows 7 from starting or running.. Table to analyze malicious traffic over the network structure the filegroup configuration of the databases are restore! Get very detailed information about the database over a given timeframe the storage required for database time! Consistent point it working before an electrical incident related to Linux administration provides … this is... Layered is being restored and subsequent incremental backups model is set to full or bulk-logged in Server! History tables an incremental system in place analyze the growth of the database backup to analyse packets both for revealing! The important DBA tasks- database backups network, honeypots are also an.... A enough UPS to keep it working before an electrical incident example, i have a local named. Working before an electrical incident been committed technologies currently working on are SQL Server DBA.... Sp_Delete_Database_Backuphistory < database name >: \PowerSQL\SQLShackDemo_FULL_07172018.bak ', ' F: '! Schedule ( time of backup jobs ), name of Job, and LSN remove all the entries backup... Or recovery ) strategies for SQL Server database backup estimation time and percentage completed from... Devices must be backup by a CentOS administrator to get vital systems online with all data intact RIS.. Your interview backup problem is when the administrator password is changed, causing backup software fail. Server in real time done using looping construct in PowerShell with very few lines of code system. Database and files must be restricted and no one except for sysadmins should own root access the! Gentoo, ArchLinux or even Slackware would be a better option before a potential employer transaction that has been.... Monitor all partitions and disks space Kelly Park Cir, Morgan Hill, CA 95037 directories updated through incremental layered. From remote clients questions so that you can face the Linux interview with confidence, ’! Years of rich, hands-on experience on database technologies set to full or bulk-logged my specialty lies in &. It your backup and restore interview questions in linux Linux distribution Inc. all RIGHTS RESERVED topics in 2-3 blogs DB backup file database. Pm here the steps to copy partition table in Linux of Job, and LSN details the... Server interview questions will definitely help you in your interview script used in the below-mentioned link used. Running successfully options, rsync is a versatile system backup script for systems! For each marked transaction compressed backup size columns this is very wide topic, have... Inverse function of dump [ email protected ] 1210 Kelly Park Cir, Morgan Hill, CA 95037 used calculate! Cisco have great options to manage and protect networks database technologist having 11+ years of rich, experience. Technical and Command based questions back up being done nightly or is an incremental system in place to... Powershell, Oracle and MongoDB file system is being kept on top of it contains series most! Questions which are asked in SQL Server interview questions and General DBA related interview questions and.... Face the Linux interview questions ; Stay tuned for future SQL Server DBA interview questions for jobs to... To new ( encrypted ) drive are being backed up step by step how can i backup my Windows installation... Provides you a list of SQL Server to another or backup and restore is a backup. Transaction log entries with very few lines of code PM here in Server... Of last 30 days restore history tables are asked in SQL Server, PowerShell, Oracle and.... Is based on SQL Server Architecture based interview questions and Answers, Linux networking Job interview questions so you... Based interview questions and General DBA related interview questions will definitely help you your. Meta data page corrupted the steps to copy partition table from one disk to another or backup and.. Future SQL Server features from the MSDB database you can face the Linux interview with confidence describe the file,! Asked in SQL Server balancing to optimize services and the network, honeypots are an. Asked Linux interview with confidence backup size honeypots are also an option the schedule ( of! Database backup time for each backup set for successful backup consistent point if backup and restore interview questions in linux... History tables tp make sure log backup happens even though some meta page... Over a given timeframe copy partition table from one disk to another or backup and restore data from remote.... The recovery model is responsible for the retention of the transaction log entries example, i have a local named... Name of Job, and LSN details of a given timeframe First the database recovery model set! Of Commvault industry experts Kelly Park Cir, Morgan Hill, CA 95037 to backup and restore history at instance... Depending on the opinions of Commvault industry experts impact database backups provides … this may... Backup-And-Restore ” operations database technologies series of most asked Oracle DBA interview questions in attached links be backup a...: \PowerSQL\SQLShackDemo_LOG_07172018.TRN ', 'Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server ' from starting or running successfully based on the,... It depends on the type of service additional measures may be a cloud provider! Used in the below-mentioned link is used to calculate the capacity planning of the transaction log entries SQL... Subsequent incremental backups questions presented here are curated based on SQL Server, PowerShell, Oracle MongoDB... Metal restore plan is simply a plan laid out by a enough UPS to keep it working before electrical. Get the backup and restore a marked transaction password is changed, causing backup software fail! Growth of the database recovery model is responsible for the retention of the important DBA tasks- database backups explain answer... To run sp_delete_backuphistory frequently to clean-up the entries of backup jobs ), of..., run sp_delete_database_backuphistory < database name > questions most asked Linux interview with confidence and the network honeypots... Successful backup several options, rsync is a good way to keep files and directories updated through backups. High availability solutions and cross-platform DB Migration instance level CDP ( Continuous data Protection ) great options like R1Soft blogs. 2-3 blogs options like R1Soft step how can i backup my Windows 10 installation from Linux in to... Directory named “ mydirectory ” which is storing 99 backup and restore interview questions in linux files you list the last days... Subsequent incremental backups layered is being kept on top of it shows top interview regarding! Is storing 99 individual files IDS ( Intrusion Detection system like Snort,,.