The Kansas City Crack House Raid experiment reported modest decreases in citizen calls for service and crime offenses at treatment blocks relative to controls that decayed within two weeks of the raids (Sherman and Rogan 1995b: 770‐776). Overall, the evidence suggests that hot spots policing has reduced crime. What studies are included? Even within the most crime‐ridden neighborhoods, crime clusters at a few discrete locations and other areas are relatively crime free (Sherman et al. Hot spots policing is built upon theories about crime at places, treating a place (e.g., address, street segment, or other small geographic area) as the unit of analysis. In the Jersey City POP at Violent Places, Kansas City Crack House Raids, and Minneapolis Hot Spots Patrol experiments, the effects of the treatment on total calls for service were used to calculate the effect size measures. 2003) is used in meta‐analysis to synthesize results from studies that contrast two groups that have a continuous underlying distribution.. A more recent systematic review of hot spots policing experiments (Braga 2005) identified five randomized controlled trials that did report sufficient data to conduct a meta‐analysis of program effects. Although I don't have an ideological bias towards the effectiveness of place‐focused interventions, it may be uncomfortable for me to report findings in my review that contradict the findings of my experiment or experiments conducted by my colleagues. I would like to thank the Smith Richardson Foundation and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences for partial support of this project. This Campbell systematic review synthesizes the existing published and non‐published empirical evidence on the effects of focused police crime prevention interventions at high‐activity crime places and will provide a systematic assessment of the preventive value of focused police crime prevention efforts at crime hot spots. Results: The search strategies identified 65 studies containing 78 tests of hot spots policing interventions. Proactive patrols focused on firearm recoveries in the Kansas City quasi‐experiment resulted in a statistically significant 65% increase in gun seizures and a statistically significant 49% decrease in gun crimes in the target beat area; gun seizures and gun crimes in the comparison beat area did not significantly change (Sherman and Rogan 1995a: 684). To some observers, establishing the absence of a displacement effect is fundamentally impossible because the potential manifestations of displacement are quite diverse (Barr and Pease 1990). However, critics of place‐based interventions charge that such policing strategies result in displacement – that is, criminals move to places not protected by police intervention (e.g. As described earlier, hot spots policing was a natural outgrowth of theoretical perspectives that suggested specific places where crime concentrates were an important focus for strategic crime prevention efforts. As described above, the Houston (TX) Targeted Beat Program (Caeti 1999) did not use appropriate statistical methods to estimate program effects and, unfortunately, an accurate effect size could not be calculated. Reflecting on the theoretical and policy lessons learned from hot spots policing evaluations, Nagin et al. Clearly, the enforcement‐oriented strategies reviewed here work in preventing crime. Each on‐line database was searched as far back as possible. Registered in England & Wales No. 3099067 This means that the hot spots policing strategies were associated with reductions in overall crime relative to control areas. These included (1) the “Registry of Experiments in Criminal Sanctions, 1950‐1983 (Weisburd et al. Since all hot spots policing experiments used citizen calls for service as an outcome measure, the main effect size for each study was calculated based on the statistics reported for key calls for service findings.1010 Call data are suggested to be more reliable measures of crime and crime‐related activity than incident data or arrest data (Pierce et al. The high‐activity addresses evaluated in the St. Louis POP quasi‐experiment were subjectively selected after a researcher searched for candidate cases within the St. Louis Police Department (Hope 1994: 10). All randomized experiments and one quasi‐experiment, the St. Louis POP study, used crime hot spots as the units of analysis. Other outcomes measures such as survey, interview, systematic observations of social disorder (such as loitering, public drinking, and the solicitation of prostitution), systematic observations of physical disorder (such as trash, broken windows, graffiti, abandoned homes, and vacant lots), and victimization measures used by eligible studies to measure program effectiveness were also coded and analyzed. 1999; Weisburd and Green 1995a) and quasi‐experiments (e.g. The potential impacts of hot spots policing on legitimacy may depend in good part on the types of strategies used and the context of the hot spots affected. In the Jersey City DMAP experiment, the authors examined the effects of the treatment on varying call subcategories and reported the effects of the treatment on disorder calls for service as the key finding of the study. In many hot spots policing experiments (e.g. The rational choice perspective assumes that “offenders seek to benefit themselves by their criminal behavior; that this involves the making of decisions and choices, however rudimentary on occasion these choices may be; and that these processes, constrained as they are by time, the offender's cognitive abilities, and by the availability of relevant information, exhibited limited rather than normative rationality” (Cornish and Clarke 1987: 933). As described earlier, the RECAP experiment, which accounts for two studies (commercial places and residential places) with large weights in this analysis, suffered from serious implementation problems that influenced the evaluation findings (inadequate intervention at treatment places; see Buerger 1993). Most notably, citizen calls for service are affected less heavily by police discretion than other official data sources (Warner and Pierce 1993). The two Jersey City experiments used the most sophisticated methodologies to measure immediate spatial displacement and diffusion effects. Five of the selected studies used randomized experimental designs and four used non‐equivalent control group quasi‐experimental designs. However, conclusions that the program did not work in treatment beats with reported significant crime reductions relative to control beats with significant crime reductions were not justified. The limits of the analytic framework preclude conclusions that certain types of policing strategies may be more effective in preventing crime in hot spots. In this article, we update and improve upon a previously completed Campbell Collaboration systematic review of the effects of hot spots policing and crime. Some ongoing attention to crime hot spots must be a characteristic of the program whether it was a series of subsequent crackdowns or simple maintenance of the targeted area through other means (e.g. 57 distinct abstracts were selected for closer review and the full‐text reports, journal articles, and books for these abstracts were acquired and carefully assessed to determine whether the interventions involved focused police enforcement efforts at crime hot spots and whether the studies used randomized controlled trial designs or nonrandomized quasi‐experimental designs. policing. Methodological problems in the research and evaluation design probably accounted for the lack of crime prevention gains in the Minneapolis RECAP experiment. This perspective is often combined with routine activity theory to explain criminal behavior during the crime event (Clarke and Felson 1993). A trim‐and‐fill analysis is overly conservative in this meta‐analysis for two reasons. The Minneapolis RECAP experiment showed no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of citizen calls for service at addresses that received the problem‐oriented policing treatment as compared to control addresses (Sherman, Buerger, and Gartin 1989: 21). Results: Sixty-two of 78 tests of hot spots policing interventions reported noteworthy crime and disorder reductions. None of the five studies reported substantial immediate spatial displacement of crime into areas surrounding the targeted locations. Eligible problem‐oriented policing initiatives must engage primarily traditional policing tactics such as law enforcement actions, informal counseling and cautioning, and referrals to other agencies. The Jersey City POP at Violent Places experiment found little evidence of displacement in the catchment areas and reported significant decreases in total calls for service and disorder calls for service in the catchment areas.88 Property crime incidents experienced a significant increase while property crime calls for service did not significantly change in the treatments catchment areas relative to controls. Whatever the impact, we need to know more about the effects of hot spots policing approaches on the communities that the police serve. EUR 39.00 This work is a Campbell Collaboration systematic review and was supported in part by funds from the Smith Richardson Foundation and the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. The results of the Houston Targeted Beat quasi‐experiment must be interpreted with caution. The Minneapolis Hot Spots Patrol Experiment suggested that increased police presence … As Bittner (1970: 90) suggests in his classic study of police work, some officers know “the shops, stores, warehouses, restaurants, hotels, schools, playgrounds, and other public places in such a way that they can recognize at a glance whether what is going on within them is within the range of normalcy.” The traditional response to such trouble spots typically included heightened levels of patrol and increased opportunistic arrests and investigations. Table 4 presents the standardized mean difference effect sizes, standard errors, inverse variance weights, and 95% confidence intervals for the hot spots experiments. Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab. It was completely possible that the observed significant reductions in the treatment beats were significantly greater than the significant reductions in control beats. The methodological approaches used to identify hot spots in the eligible studies were also reviewed. We find no evidence of crime displacement but rather a decrease in car thefts in nearby hot spots and a decrease in assaults in nearby non-hot spots. Nonetheless, focused aggressive police enforcement strategies have been criticized as resulting in increased citizen complaints about police misconduct and abuse of force in New York City (Greene 1999). This small body of evaluation research does not unravel the important question of whether enforcement‐oriented programs result in long‐term crime reductions in hot spot areas. 0042). Braga , A., D. Weisburd, E. Waring, L. Green Mazerolle, and F. Gajewski (1999). Learn about our remote access options, Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 John F. Kennedy Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138 USA, Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management. 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