Students consider the teaching profession to be totally different in primary and secondary schools, with different professional identities. Schools must take account of the new relationship to information and knowledge, the new relationship to time and space, the new relationship to others, the collaborative ways of working, and learning. ESPEs are now trying again to design ‘common modules’ for all future teachers. Gradually, the level of recruitment of primary teachers was increased, to the baccalauréat and then to the DEUG (a diploma assessing 2 years of university studies). Each region is managed by a representative of the Minister, the Recteur d'académie, appointed by the State. Subjects are central, but also entail a first reflection about teaching and learning, and some didactical and pedagogical input. Further, during the second year, teaching half-time in a school, writing a dissertation, and preparing the second part of the Master's degree is considered a huge workload. On 1 September 2013, 23 years after their creation, IUFMs were cancelled and replaced by new institutions: ESPEs (Ecoles Supérieures du Professorat et de l'Education). Becoming more academic calls for the strong involvement of universities. A list of 14 competencies was designed by the Ministry (Ministerial Order, 1 July 2013) (Journal officiel de la République française 2013). TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center • If one has passed the concours, there will be an other year of teacher training. But now there is a significant number of students who have done something else in between. For some people, IUFMs looked too pedagogy-oriented, which could lead to a diminution of knowledge mastering (some said that IUFMs were the ‘temples of pedagogy’!). Teacher education, any of the formal programs that have been established for the preparation of teachers at the elementary- and secondary-school levels. Future teachers cannot acquire all the necessary knowledge and competencies for their whole career during their initial training! After the presidential election in 2012, the new government decided to start a new reform of teacher training, and to give teacher training real priority. Workplaces. Practice analysis seminars were established, gathering students, academic staff and tutors. This means that one has a clear vision of what the teaching profession is, and what the necessary professional competencies are. The changes to teacher qualification standards discussed above are too recent to have had any impact on Grade 4 students assessed in TIMSS 2015. The content and methods of teacher education are changing and are now more professionally oriented. And the new system brings new types of situations, such as students who pass the Master's degree but do not succeed in the recruitment competition or, oppositely, students who pass the competition but do not obtain their Master's degree. It could be, for instance, a given subject (mathematics or language), from primary to secondary school, or ‘the pupil’ through primary and secondary school, or common knowledge about the education system. But, progressively, the means were reduced and almost disappeared. In 2016, there were 12,935 jobs available for primary school teachers in the public sector. After a long period of time during which primary teachers were trained in écoles normales and secondary teachers only received subject preparation, the creation of IUFMs (Instituts Universitaires de Formation des Maîtres – university institutes for teacher training) as independent institutions in 1990 tried to resolve the biggest questions of teacher education. The new teacher education program focuses on practical training and is based on the premise that the most effective initial training programs are those that guarantee an appropriate balance between theory and practice and collaboration between teachers. Teachers with office hours are almost non-existent which further alienates the instructors from their classes. On July 8, 2013, the French government established a new policy on teacher education and continuing professional development. Since the primary aim of students was to be recruited, there was a kind of contradiction in the first year at IUFM: being prepared for the teaching profession and being prepared to pass the competition did not totally coincide! Emmanuel Macron, is his programme for government (2017), stated that education and teachers had & Hache, C.. : 2000, Connecting Research to French Mathematics Teacher The main ambition of ESPEs is to offer professionalising training for 2 years, after acquiring the Bachelor degree, leading to a national Master's degree: MEEF (Métiers de l'enseignement, de l’éducation et de la formation – Professions of teaching, education and training). The study of teacher education system of France becomes more significant in a sense that it is unique in many terms and was a topic of debate and policy reforms between previous and present government. And the second one was strongly rejected by the teachers’ unions because being paid during part of one's studies has a long tradition in the country, and is considered an efficient means for making the teaching profession accessible to everyone. Teaching in France Jul 6, 2020 Everyone is looking to lose weight these days, but most people miss the one key to just how easy it really is: eating more fiber! Integrating ICT into education is often announced as a priority, yet change is very slow and there is a risk that schools are ‘by-passed’ by society; knowledge will be available in many other places. During our Teacher Education in French programme you will learn about teaching methodology, literature and culture of the French-speaking countries, linguistics, and second language acquisition. It was also clear for primary teachers, with the Ecoles Normales. View aims and scope Submit your article Guide for authors. SHARE TWEET EMBED Interesting observations about Education > Pupil-teacher ratio, primary. Loi n°89-486 du 10 juillet 1989 d'orientation sur l’éducation. Registered in England & Wales No. A teacher never finishes learning and developing his/her professional competencies. This reform organised the school in ‘cycles’ instead of ‘years’: a ‘cycle’ is a set of 3 years during which the competencies to acquire were fixed by a national curriculum. So the first year was mainly focussed on preparation for the recruitment competition and, after passing the competition, during the 2nd year, students were given the status of ‘trainee-teachers’ and paid as civil servants. Another important issue for teacher education is linking theory and practice, linking courses at IUFM or ESPE with school practice. For primary teachers, the competition (CRPE) is organised at the level of the académie. And, as a consequence, secondary and primary teachers would then receive the same salaries. The generalisation of ICT in teacher training has not happened. This changed the content of the training in IUFMs, and the status of newly recruited teachers. While you need protein, healthy fats, and many vitamins and minerals for overall health, the one food that can help you stay fuller longer and keep your weight down is fiber-rich foods. The teachers’ unions support this very strongly since they think it is the role of the State to ensure a certain equity between regions, schools and teachers, and that letting the schools choose their teachers would in a way not be equitable. The teaching profession needs to be permanently in a ‘trainee’ spirit. This could take several forms: ‘accompanied practice’, where the student was together with a teacher in the classroom, and also during the second year ‘full responsibility practice’ where the student was alone with the pupils. At that time, there was a lot of funding and posts for teacher in-service training. Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, Teacher Education in France: Universitisation and professionalisation – from IUFMs to ESPEs, relatif au référentiel des compétences professionnelles des métiers du professorat et de l’éducation. ESPEs, new facilities for teacher education, opened their doors in September 2013, and a two year master’s degree in education (Masters des métiers de l’enseignement, de l’éducation et de la formation, or MEEF) was initiated. IUFMs have progressively started integrating ICT into teacher education, but the result is not as good as expected. Educational research, education sciences, and didactics of different disciplines were more and more active in universities, even if considered as marginal. 2013, fixant le cadre national des formations dispensées au sein des masters «métiers de l'enseignement, de l’éducation et de la formation». Approximately 60,000 students are studying currently in these four ESPE program fields. In 2011, the prerequisites for taking the CRPE were modified, and a master’s degree (i.e., five years of higher education) was introduced as a new requirement. Study Abroad - France - Undergraduate - Teacher Education information on StudyAbroad.com the leading site for Study Abroad, Volunteer Abroad, Intern Abroad, Teach Abroad, & Full Degree Abroad. Upon validation of their work, trainee teachers became full-fledged primary school teachers with civil service status. ESPEs are now trying to apply it to the new curricula for teacher training. So if anyone from French Education’s higher echelons is reading this, here’re some tips for you to focus on: in the red category almost all French students have problems with: hit, hurt, blow, throw, wear, catch, sell and fall. FF 150,000 (EUR 22,000) per inhabitant. They take a sandwich coursea for one year in which they divide their time between practice in schools and colleges of teaching and education, known as ESPEs (Écoles supérieures du Professorat et de l’Éducation). • Besides, a teacher in France will teach only one school subject. The dissertation that all students have to write during their second year at IUFM (and now at ESPE) is a core component of their academic training. The normal Master's degree for becoming a teacher is the new MEEF Master's degree, but many students already have another type of Master's degree, and of course they are entitled to take the recruitment competition, but they need a special curriculum in order to receive full professional preparation. There was also some resistance from inspectors. This comes from a time when the State wanted to recruit experts in subjects and then, when recruited, train them for their new profession. Some common courses were designed for future primary and secondary teachers, based on the continuity of a discipline and its concepts throughout the school, and on the continuity of the development of the pupil throughout primary and secondary school. All programmes. Teaching and learning a subject is being changed by digital technologies. Teachers and pupils are required to show philosophical and political neutrality. This was progressively done during the 23 years of IUFMs. Co-Editors in Chief: Hafdís Guðjónsdóttir, Robert Kleinsasser. But, 15 years later, universities looked more ready to integrate teacher training into their mission. The reactions of students to the creation of IUFMs were very diverse. They consider subject knowledge as the core component of education, and criticise pedagogical methods based on collaboration, projects etc. In the 1970s and 1980s, we saw the development of both educational research and in-service teacher training. After a few years, their contribution to teacher training in IUFMs became more natural and accepted. There is a risk of just adding and juxtaposing too many modules about all the components which appear necessary for a teacher. 3099067 A political debate: The government considered this reform as a major one, within the framework of the new orientation law on education. It is necessary to analyse both their successes and failures in the process of designing renewed teacher training within the framework of the new ESPEs. But more and more, they realised that being a teacher is a profession which needs professional training. The ATEE aims to enhance the quality of Teacher Education in Europe through active dialogue and international exchange of research and practice in initial and in-service teacher education. But how to become a secondary teacher was not so clear. The attitude of some academic staff was one reason for some failures in IUFMS. It was a very interesting process, even if it sometimes gave the IUFM staff a feeling of vertigo, like working without a safety net! The first competency of a teacher is certainly mastering the knowledge, but the teacher has to stand back and be able to ‘look at’ his/her discipline: know about its history and epistemology, know about its role in other subjects and in society, about its applications and uses. During their 23 years of life, IUFMs trained around 500,000 teachers, and this is a great success! ESPEs are being asked to play a major role in in-service teacher training. As a rule, in primary schools in France, teachers do not specialize in a particular subject but are responsible for teaching all subjects to their class. 3. You can find them both in the left- and right-wing parties. For accessing an IUFM, you had to study 3 years after acquiring the baccalauréat. The journal focuses on early childhood through high school (secondary education), teacher preparation, along with higher education concerning teacher professional development and/or teacher education. As for education, they are quite conservative. In French high schools, teachers are only present to teach their classes and then they leave. The report says there are three main domains of competencies necessary for a future teacher: knowledge about the subject identity (knowledge to be taught, history and epistemology of the discipline, social role of the discipline), knowledge about learning and teaching (didactics and pedagogy), and knowledge about the education system (national educational policy, the educational institution etc.). Professional development was not their topic! Some teach the French Option International du Baccalauréat (OIB), which provides admission to higher education in France. Progressively, all IUFMs became university institutes, within universities. Media reports in France identified the teacher as a high school history educator who also taught geography courses. Subject. New dimensions are emerging in the profession: being a pedagogical engineer, being a digital pedagogical designer, being a tutor, being a moderator etc. A consequence was a huge reduction in the number of applicants for the competitions, leading to a fear of a lack of well-prepared teachers. However, if a team of teachers agrees, the teachers may collaborate and teach students by subject depending on the skills of each teacher. With digital technologies and resources, the teaching profession is more collaborative, and networked. The Prime Minister and the Minister of Education were personally and highly involved in the reform, and engaged in several strong discourses to support it. The choen institution alone will be authorized to validate a student’s previous education. The path leading to the teaching profession is now clearly identified, with IUFMs and now ESPEs. Teaching staff in primary. Yet it was always difficult to find a fine balance between the three categories. Teacher education has progressed a lot in France over the last 25 years. Teacher training institutions must not only train for tomorrow the teacher of yesterday; they must anticipate the main evolutions in society and foreshadow the teacher of tomorrow. The educational policy is fixed at the national level; curricula and contents are designed by the Ministry of Education. The success of the new reform (ESPEs) depends considerably on the way the competitions will evolve and become more professionally oriented. The creation of IUFMs gave an opportunity to develop educational research in France, particularly didactics of several subjects. Training them in the same institution, with similar programmes of the same duration, and paying them the same salary supported the idea that the two professions had the same dignity. This was done through ‘common modules’ attended by future primary and secondary teachers, based on the common culture of schools and addressing, for instance, the uniqueness of a subject throughout primary and secondary school, and the uniqueness of a pupil throughout schooling. But implementation of the reform, which is still underway, is difficult: within a short time, the teams in ESPEs had to design new content and new curricula. The creation of ESPEs has clearly restarted the process: in the last 2 years the number of students in ESPEs has increased. Play media . Local and national education priorities determine the content of annual in-service training courses offered at each level, and the teaching of mathematics and of science generally features in these courses. IUFMs were very creative in designing new ways for articulating theory and practice. A consequence of such a process is that schools cannot choose their teachers! We use cookies to improve your website experience. The creation of IUFMs was a big step forward, and triggered many developments. Teacher education is, of course, essential in the development of digital technologies in education. Nowadays, people understand that it is a profession which needs professional competencies and professional training. ESPEs must be aware that they are preparing beginner teachers, not experienced ones! When IUFMs were created, the previous institutions for primary teachers’ training, Ecoles Normales, were suppressed. Three year olds do not start primary school, they start preschool. They lost part of their autonomy and became more dependent on university policy. But the point is not to have some of those teachers, but to prepare the huge number of teachers the country needs. Teaching Careers in Europe: Access, Progression and Support, Eurydice report. These reforms have led to lots of debates and controversy about the role of universities and the role of schools in teacher education, the articulation between theory and practice, the balance between knowledge and pedagogy etc. More academic, because up to then primary teachers were not trained at university, and because secondary teachers had an academic education only about their subject, not about pedagogy or professional preparation. With IUFMs and then ESPEs, teacher training has been improved in its content and methods. This law stated the main principles for education: education is the first national priority; education must be ‘pupil centred’; each child must be the main actor of his/her orientation; the educational community, including the parents, is in charge of education etc. In 2014, there were 330,500 primary school teachers in the public sector, 83 percent of whom were women. Preparing teachers for diversity: The role of initial teacher education, Commission Report. English instructors are normally required to have a Bachelor’s degree and at least a year of relevant education experience, and hold TEFL or CELTA certification. In 1999, France's GDP was close to FF 9,000 billion (EUR 1,330 billion), i.e. They say that ‘teaching is an art, not a science’, based on common sense and pragmatism, and they denounce pedagogy as something empty and useless, just words without real content. Job Duties. Pros and Cons to an International School Education If you are wondering whether to enroll your child in an international school or not, consider their schooling level. There was a very long tradition of Ecoles Normales. The question is why IUFMs did not fully achieve the initial ambitions, which errors they made, and why, after 20 years, IUFMs had moved quite far away from their initial aims. The method used by the Ministry for creating and developing IUFMs was quite innovative. Some main principles lay at the core of the reform: Being a teacher is a profession that must be learnt and prepared. The four-year Post Primary Teacher Education – Gaeilge and French or German or Spanish degree is a ‘concurrent’ teacher education course – meaning that the academic and professional formation of the teacher is integrated into all four years. The global scheme is quite similar to the IUFM one: after 3 years at university, students enter an ESPE and undergo 2 years of training. Coherence between pre-service and in-service training. Not only should they be juxtaposed as independent parts of the training, but they should be closely articulated, with one feeding the other. Before IUFMs had been created, secondary teaching recruitment competitions were prepared for in universities, so some had the feeling that these preparations had been stolen from them! The recruitment competition is taken at the end of the first year. In France, initial teacher training is consecutive. It will fully qualify you to teach second-level Gaeilge and another language on completion of the course. Most ‘played the game’ and contributed to the reform, but for some of them it was a huge change of culture and a difficult transition. Journal Officiel de la République française. Initial training is the first part, but cannot provide for all the competencies and knowledge needed for one's whole career. The creation of IUFMs was supposed to attract a large number of students. They worked in teams, including academic staff and primary and secondary teachers, produced a lot of educational resources and offered many sessions and courses for teachers’ in-service training. Further, you will study pedagogics, which focuses on topics like child development psychology, working with pupils with special needs, and working in a multicultural environment. The development of professional competencies, which was an important mission for IUFMs, was then reduced. France is known for having a very centralised education system. At that time, there was a lack of candidates for becoming a teacher. Some people were anxious that such an increase could lower the number of candidates. At the beginning, many secondary student teachers had the feeling that only the subject content was important in order to become a teacher, and they were quite critical of pedagogy and didactics. They were recruited only on the basis of their subject aptitudes. In July 1989, an important law was adopted by the French Parliament: the loi d'orientation sur l’éducation (orientation law on education). A question was often raised in IUFMs: should a teacher trainer be or have been a school teacher? The political debate about IUFMs became ever tougher and, in 1993, during the campaign for the parliamentary elections, the main right-wing party, RPR, announced that it would cancel IUFMs. Primary teachers were trained in Ecoles Normales. The duration of the training, its organisation, and its content have been revamped. The majority of schools in France are state schools. The aim of technology training is to help teachers not only to master digital tools on a technical level but to implement digital tools in classroom learning, in creating pedagogical resources adapted to individual students, and in better communicating with families. A successful education system requires a high standard of teaching, and the French expect a lot from their teachers. Accordingly, placing the competition after the first year was a kind of compromise solution, but it made most people dissatisfied! The scope of the response was a measure of how the killing of Samuel Paty, a teacher in a suburb north of Paris, had reopened old wounds in France. Supports open access. They are recruited and paid by the State, and are appointed to schools. Finding gifted candidates is not enough! But there is still a problem with the relationship between the ESPE staff and the school teachers who tutor students during their practice periods in schools. Use the links below to access the details of France's national contacts, to find out more about its system for inclusive education and to explore publications, country data, projects and news relating to France. When IUFMs were established, there was a lack of candidates. For instance, being more academic was sometimes understood as more theoretical, giving some students the sense that they were not well prepared enough for the real-life situations they encountered in schools. It was clear how to become an engineer: go to one of the engineers’ schools. Traditionally, a majority of teachers in France vote for the left. New academic positions were offered in IUFMs, and educational researchers could be recruited. Teacher Education Specific to Mathematics and Science. Candidates were recruited into the first year based on either their secondary school credentials or subsequent interviews. IUFMs had a few difficulties in designing appropriate courses and training activities. IUFMs are public higher education institutions […], they run the initial professional training of teachers, […] they contribute to teachers’ in-service training and to educational research […]” (Orientation Law on Education 1989, Art. Teacher Education Study Abroad Undergraduate Programs in France. A ‘national framework’ for the curriculum of the MEEF Master's degree (Ministerial Order, 27 August 2013), to be followed by universities and ESPEs in order to gain national accreditation for delivering the MEEF Master's degree (Journal officiel de la République française 2013). A major difficulty at the beginning of the history of IUFMs was the confrontation of three different cultures: university culture, secondary education culture, and primary education culture. He/she has to acquire other types of knowledge, such as knowing about children and teenagers (psychology), knowing about the education system, its social role, its functioning, and also mastering technical competencies (voice and body mastering, technological tools etc.). But some failures also happened. From then on, they did not receive any salary during their studies at IUFM. Some party leaders from the right wing said that IUFMs were established in order to prepare ‘left-wing teachers’. However, in the case of IUFMs, the law only gave very short general statements: “An IUFM will be created in each académie, from 1 September 1990, attached to one or several universities […]. At the end of the program, trainees were assessed on their work with students in class, the disciplines they studied at the university, and a report they will have written on a practical aspect of education. For example, particular emphasis is given to mastering digital tools. But preparing and training 20,000 future teachers every year is possible! During the last 25 years, educational research has progressed a lot in France, and this can be considered a success for IUFMs. They were quite successful. The French teacher education system that is going through a process of change and radical reforms seems an interesting case in this regard. Coherence between discipline content and professional preparation. Secondary teachers teach only one subject (except some in vocational education). IUFMs always tried to maintain a good balance between subjects and pedagogy, and between theory and practice. France had quite poor results in the PISA evaluations, and many questions were raised about the quality of the French education system. Thus, the Ministry gradually produced all the necessary decrees and orders based on concrete problems and pragmatic solutions! In France, initial teacher education is provided by universities, in schools of the Teaching and Higher Education. Teacher education and training, first teacher training college in French history of education and history of teaching, Jean Babtiste de la Salle's 18th century Brothers of the Christian schools, had non-clerical male teachers teaching poor and middle class children. Mainly about the teaching profession, and educational research has progressed a lot from their teachers newly teacher. Work to be school teachers sampled in TIMSS 2015 will have taken place at a school?. 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