[113] On the way he was taken ill in Tromsø, possibly with a heart attack. On 4 February 1903, the party finally reached the ship. [13], Shackleton used his acquaintance with the son to obtain an interview with Longstaff senior, with a view to obtaining a place on the expedition. 2d. McIlroy was head of the scientific staff, which included Wordie. Sir Ernest Shackleton visited old friends at the whaling station and organised preparations for the expedition. [95] This was the first time they had stood on solid ground for 497 days. While Shackleton led the expedition, Captain F. Worsley commanded the Endurance and Lieutenant J. Stenhouse the Aurora. [12] Following the outbreak of the Boer War in 1899, Shackleton transferred to the troopship Tintagel Castle where, in March 1900, he met an army lieutenant, Cedric Longstaff, whose father Llewellyn W. Longstaff was the main financial backer of the National Antarctic Expedition then being organised in London. The Anglo-Irish family of Shackleton was not the exception. She writes a monthly history of science column for, To listen, just search for “What would Shackleton do?” wherever you get your podcasts or you can find them on the, School of Applied Language & Intercultural Studies, School of Theology, Philosophy, and Music, School of Language, Literacy & Early Childhood Education, School of STEM Education, Innovation & Global Studies, School of Nursing, Psychotherapy & Community Health, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, European Consortium of Innovative Universities (ECIU), Centre for Talented Youth, Ireland (CTYI), Office of the Vice-President Academic Affairs. [11], In 1898, Shackleton joined Union-Castle Line, the regular mail and passenger carrier between Southampton and Cape Town. Despite his efforts, it required government action, in the form of a grant of £20,000 (2008: £1.5 million) to clear the most pressing obligations. in Morrell and Capparell 146). Ernest Henry Shackleton was a dreamer. With Amundsen reaching the pole in December of 1911 and Scott in 1912, Shackleton asked himself what was the last great geographic prize. When Sir Ernest Shackleton set out on the Endurance to be the first man to cross the Antarctic, he knew he could not do it alone. Shackleton's earliest days were spent on his family's farm in Ireland, where he was born on February 15, 1874. [129][130] Macklin wrote in his diary: "I think this is as 'the Boss' would have had it himself, standing lonely in an island far from civilisation, surrounded by stormy tempestuous seas, & in the vicinity of one of his greatest exploits. Ernest Shackleton Ernest Shackleton Short Biography. He was one of the principal figures of the "Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration". Ernest Henry Shackleton. It examines the parallels between the conditions experienced by renowned explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton and his crew on his Antarctic expeditions and the characteristics they needed, and our own experiences now under the COVID19 restrictions. After a medical examination (which proved inconclusive),[32] Scott decided to send Shackleton home on the relief ship Morning, which had arrived in McMurdo Sound in January 1903. F Four years later, the family moved again, from Ireland to Sydenham in suburban London. Shackleton later wrote, "if we did not make it to South Georgia in that time we were sure to go under." His fondest dream was to make a name for himself. In the period immediately after his return, Shackleton engaged in a strenuous schedule of public appearances, lectures and social engagements. Yelcho, commanded by Captain Luis Pardo, and the British whaler Southern Sky reached Elephant Island on 30 August 1916, at which point the men had been isolated there for four and a half months, and Shackleton quickly evacuated all 22 men. [115] In the midst of seeking capital, his plans foundered when Northern Russia fell to Bolshevik control. [67] Fridtjof Nansen sent an effusive private letter to Emily Shackleton, praising the "unique expedition which has been such a complete success in every respect". [5], In 1880, when Ernest was six, Henry Shackleton gave up his life as a landowner to study medicine at Trinity College, Dublin, moving his family to the city. Although it is likely that Norwegian whalers had previously crossed at other points on ski, no one had attempted this particular route before. Born in Ireland in 1874, Shackleton traded his modest prospects for a career in the British navy. 2. Frozen sea ice not under pressure is not nearly as harmful to ships. [114] From October 1918, he served with the North Russia Expeditionary Force in the Russian Civil War under the command of Major-General Edmund Ironside, with the role of advising on the equipment and training of British forces in arctic conditions. However, all final decisions were made by Shackleton. [89] On 21 November 1915, the wreck finally slipped beneath the surface. Abraham Shackleton, an English Quaker, moved to Ireland in 1726 and started a school at Ballitore, County Kildare. [110][111] In October 1917, he was sent to Buenos Aires to boost British propaganda in South America. Mackintosh.. South, by Sir Ernest Shackleton.. Antarctica; the Extraordinary History of Man's Conquest of the Frozen Continent, by Reader's Digest, second edition. Suffering from a heart condition, made worse by the fatigue of his arduous journeys, and too old to be conscripted, he nevertheless volunteered for the army. Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton is best known as a polar explorer who was associated with four expeditions exploring Antarctica, particularly the Trans-Antarctic ( Endurance) Expedition (1914–16) that he led, which, although unsuccessful, became famous as a tale of remarkable perseverance and survival. [104], The next successful crossing of South Georgia was in October 1955, by the British explorer Duncan Carse, who travelled much of the same route as Shackleton's party. Ernest Shackleton never did reach the South Pole or cross Antarctica. At the age of thirteen, he entered Dulwich College. [47], To conserve coal, the ship was towed 1,650 miles (2,655 km) by the steamer Koonya to the Antarctic ice, after Shackleton had persuaded the New Zealand government and the Union Steamship Company to share the cost. [146], Shackleton's death marked the end of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, a period of discovery characterised by journeys of geographical and scientific exploration in a largely unknown continent without any of the benefits of modern travel methods or radio communication. [62][65] Shackleton was also appointed a Younger Brother of Trinity House, a significant honour for British mariners. [159][160] In 2017, the musical play Ernest Shackleton Loves Me by Val Vigoda and Joe DiPietro made its debut in New York City at the Tony Kiser Theater, an Off-Broadway venue. Longstaff, impressed by Shackleton's keenness, recommended him to Sir Clements Markham, the expedition's overlord, making it clear that he wanted Shackleton accepted. His father was a doctor and wanted Ernest to follow in his footsteps. "[32] There is conjecture that Scott's motive for removing him was resentment of Shackleton's popularity, and that ill-health was used as an excuse to get rid of him. This march was not a serious attempt on the Pole, although the attainment of a high latitude was of great importance to Scott, and the inclusion of Shackleton indicated a high degree of personal trust. For these achievements, Shackleton was knighted by King Edward VII on his return home. He thought seriously of going to the Beaufort Sea area of the Arctic, a largely unexplored region, and raised some interest in this idea from the Canadian government. [98] Ship's carpenter Harry McNish made various improvements, including raising the sides, strengthening the keel, building a makeshift deck of wood and canvas, and sealing the work with oil paint and seal blood.[98]. [75] Two ships would be employed; Endurance would carry the main party into the Weddell Sea, aiming for Vahsel Bay from where a team of six, led by Shackleton, would begin the crossing of the continent. Shackleton's fellow-explorers expressed their admiration; Roald Amundsen wrote, in a letter to RGS Secretary John Scott Keltie, that "the English nation has by this deed of Shackleton's won a victory that can never be surpassed". [67] The reality was that the expedition had left Shackleton deeply in debt, unable to meet the financial guarantees he had given to backers. Ernest Henry Shackleton was a dreamer. A number of medals awarded to Antarctic explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton raise £585,000 at a London auction. [102], On the following day, they were able, finally, to land on the unoccupied southern shore. [121][122], The plan changed; the destination became the Antarctic, and the project was defined by Shackleton as an "oceanographic and sub-antarctic expedition". With Amundsen reaching the pole in December of 1911 and Scott in 1912, Shackleton asked himself what was the last great geographic prize. Unqualified as a diplomat, he was unsuccessful in persuading Argentina and Chile to enter the war on the Allied side. His parents had ten children: 8 daughters and only two sons. Dying heavily in debt, Shackleton's small estate consisted of personal effects to the value of £556 2s. He left on the eve of … Although some of his former crew members had not received all their pay from the Endurance expedition, many of them signed on with their former "Boss". He was sent home early due to bad health. To this end, he made preparations for what became the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914–1917. [17], Although Discovery was not a Royal Navy unit, Scott required the crew, officers and scientific staff to submit to the conditions of the Naval Discipline Act, and the ship and expedition were run on Royal Navy lines. In this regard Shackleton’s procrastination cost the party dearly. [11] In August 1894, he passed his examination for second mate and accepted a post as third officer on a tramp steamer of the Welsh Shire Line. [35], In search of more permanent employment, Shackleton applied for a regular commission in the Royal Navy, via the back-door route of the Supplementary List,[37] but despite the sponsorship of Markham and William Huggins, the president of the Royal Society, he was not successful. [124] The expedition left England on 24 September 1921. The Endurance 1914 – 1916 expedition has become one of the greatest epics of human survival. Consequently, Shackleton decided to risk an open-boat journey to the 720-nautical-mile-distant South Georgia whaling stations, where he knew help was available. See objects and photographs from Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. [35] As the first significant person to return from the Antarctic, he found that he was in demand; in particular, the Admiralty wished to consult him about its further proposals for the rescue of Discovery. E xplorer Explorer Sir Raymond Priestley said: "For scientific discovery give me [Robert Falcon] Scott; for speed and efficiency of travel give me [Roald] Amundsen; but when disaster strikes and all hope is gone, get down on your knees and pray for [Ernest] Shackleton.". Shackleton's will was proven in London on 12 May 1922. [91] After failed attempts to march across the ice to this island, Shackleton decided to set up another more permanent camp (Patience Camp) on another floe, and trust to the drift of the ice to take them towards a safe landing. in response to the current pandemic. [55] They arrived at Hut Point just in time to catch the ship. The third option was chosen. He still harboured thoughts of returning south, even though in September 1910, having recently moved with his family to Sheringham in Norfolk, he wrote to Emily: "I am never again going South and I have thought it all out and my place is at home now". The Shackleton family are of English origin, specifically from Yorkshire. (equivalent to £30,590 in 2019[132]) which he bequeathed to his wife. Ernest Shackleton is a name that I did not immediately recognize. Visiting history on South Georgia Island, Ernest Shackleton's final resting place This tiny south Atlantic island is the last resting place of one the world's greatest polar explorers, Ernest Shackleton. [6] However, Shackleton took lifelong pride in his Irish roots, and frequently declared, "I am an Irishman". [40] He also ventured into politics, unsuccessfully standing in the 1906 General Election as the Liberal Unionist Party's candidate for Dundee constituency in opposition to Irish Home Rule. She writes a monthly history of science column for The Irish Times. Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was a polar explorer who led four expeditions exploring Antarctica. But what did Ernest Shackleton really do and what leadership insights can we learn from him? (, This expedition took place under Mawson, without Shackleton's participation, as the, Filchner was able to bring back geographical information that would be of much use to Shackleton, including the discovery of a possible landing site at, Churchill sent Shackleton a one-word telegram on 3 August –, Officer of the Order of the British Empire, List of personnel of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, Sir Ernest Shackleton: Funeral Ceremony In South Georgia: Many Wreaths On Coffin, Shackleton's Last Voyage: the Story of the Quest, "Polar explorer Ernest Shackleton may have had hole in his heart, doctors say", "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", "Shackleton, Sir Ernest Henry of 14 Milnethorpe-road, Eastbourne, knight", "Reliving Shackleton's Epic Endurance Expedition", "Ernest Shackleton Honoured with Birthday Google Doodle", "Team sets out to recreate Shackleton's epic journey", "Sir Ernest Shackleton medals raise £585,000 at auction", "Elation for Adelaide adventurer Tim Jarvis as epic Antarctic trek ends", "Polar Explorer vs. At the same time, attitudes towards Scott were gradually changing as a more critical note was sounded in the literature, culminating in Roland Huntford's 1979 treatment of him in his dual biography Scott and Amundsen, described by Barczewski as a "devastating attack". [59], On Shackleton's return home, public honours were quickly forthcoming. [123] On 16 September 1921, Shackleton recorded a farewell address on a sound-on-film system created by Harry Grindell Matthews, who claimed it was the first "talking picture" ever made. In his search for rapid pathways to wealth and security, he launched business ventures which failed to prosper, and he died heavily in debt. 3. [115], For his "valuable services rendered in connection with Military Operations in North Russia" Shackleton was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 1919 King's Birthday Honours,[116] and was also mentioned in despatches by General Ironside. [125] He refused a proper medical examination, so Quest continued south, and on 4 January 1922, arrived at South Georgia. The march was, Scott wrote later, "a combination of success and failure". A new podcast by Dr. Juliana Adelman from the School of History and Geography and Kevin Kenny from the Shackleton Museum in Athy asks, Shackleton wrote about what is needed to survive the adversities which life throws up. [148] In 2002, Channel 4 produced Shackleton, a TV serial depicting the 1914 expedition with Kenneth Branagh in the title role. Born 15 February 1874, in Kilkea, County Kildare, Ireland, Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was a popular British Antarctic explorer. Leaving McNish, Vincent and McCarthy at the landing point on South Georgia, Shackleton travelled 32 miles (51 km)[95] with Worsley and Crean over extremely dangerous mountainous terrain for 36 hours to reach the whaling station at Stromness on 20 May. Ernest Shackleton's ship the Endurance is most famous for not making it to the edge of the Antarctic continent in the Weddell Sea and instead being caught in the sea-ice and eventually being crushed, sinking hundreds of miles from land, the outside world knew nothing of these events until Shackleton himself escaped and brought about rescue of his companions. [81] He ultimately selected a crew of 56, twenty-eight on each ship. Other crew included James, Hussey, Greenstreet, a carpenter Harry McNish, and a biologist named Clark. Ernest Shackleton, however, would not have been surprised: he edited his 1914-17 journal into the book, South!, which was published three years after he had returned from Antarctica. [76] Public interest in the expedition was considerable; Shackleton received more than 5,000 applications to join it. ― Ernest Shackleton. [36] With Sir Clements Markham's blessing, he accepted a temporary post assisting the outfitting of the Terra Nova for the second Discovery relief operation, but turned down the offer to sail with her as chief officer. [82], Despite the outbreak of the First World War on 3 August 1914, Endurance was directed by the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, to "proceed",[g] and left British waters on 8 August. It's a rare human that develops an obsession with blizzards and icebergs, but Ernest Shackleton was no ordinary man. In 2017 Nancy Koehn argued that, in spite of Shackleton's mistakes, financial problems and narcissism, he developed the capability to be successful. £350,000), not through an outright gift. At one point, Shackleton gave his one biscuit allotted for the day to the ailing Frank Wild, who wrote in his diary: "All the money that was ever minted would not have bought that biscuit and the remembrance of that sacrifice will never leave me". [64] All the members of the Nimrod Expedition shore party received silver Polar Medals on 23 November, with Shackleton receiving a clasp to his earlier medal. Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was born to Anglo-Irish parents on February 15, 1874 in Co. Kildare, Ireland, with the family moving to Sydenham in London 10 years later. Meanwhile, a second ship, the Aurora, would take a supporting party under Captain Aeneas Mackintosh to McMurdo Sound on the opposite side of the continent. Shackleton reluctantly agreed to look for winter quarters at either the Barrier Inlet—which Discovery had briefly visited in 1902—or King Edward VII Land. As a young boy, his family moved to England where he started his first formal schooling. by Paul Clammer Posted on 20 June 2018. Ernest Henry Shackleton (1874-1922) was a British explorer who commanded three expeditions to the Antarctic (1907-09, 1914-17, 1921-22), during which the South Magnetic Pole was located in 1909. In charge of holds, stores and provisions [...] He also arranges the entertainments. What would Shackleton do? One does not believe that we have lost all sense of admiration for courage [and] endurance". “Shackleton is recognised as a role model for his leadership in times of crisis, most notably the Endurance expedition where, having lost the expedition ship, he led his crew through one of the greatest ever survival epics. He appealed to the Chilean government, which offered the use of the Yelcho, a small seagoing tug from its navy. Dr. Juliana Adelman is an Assistant Professor of History in the School of History and Geography. In 1880, when Ernest was six, Henry Shackleton gave up his life as a landowner to study medicine at Trinity College, Dublin, moving his family into the city. [9], Shackleton's restlessness at school was such that he was allowed to leave at 16 and go to sea. On the return journey, Shackleton had by his own admission "broken down" and could no longer carry out his share of the work.[30]. [143] Other management writers soon followed this lead, using Shackleton as an exemplar for bringing order from chaos. [94], After five harrowing days at sea, the exhausted men landed their three lifeboats at Elephant Island, 346 miles (557 km) from where the Endurance sank. This book, as well as being a tribute to the explorer, was a practical effort to assist his family; Shackleton died some £40,000 in debt (equivalent to £2,200,324 in 2019[132])[135] A further initiative was the establishment of a Shackleton Memorial Fund, which was used to assist the education of his children and the support of his mother. On 8 May, thanks to Worsley's navigational skills, the cliffs of South Georgia came into sight, but hurricane-force winds prevented the possibility of landing. [58] Several mostly intact cases of whisky and brandy left behind in 1909 were recovered in 2010, for analysis by a distilling company. [62][63] He was honoured by the Royal Geographical Society, who awarded him a Gold Medal; a proposal that the medal be smaller than that earlier awarded to Captain Scott was not acted on. Led by explorer and environmental scientist Tim Jarvis, the team was assembled at the request of Alexandra Shackleton, Sir Ernest's granddaughter, who felt the trip would honour her grandfather's legacy. Shackleton always kept the members of the crew informed, and never left any member out (80). [8] He was schooled by a governess until the age of eleven, when he began at Fir Lodge Preparatory School in West Hill, Dulwich, in southeast London. Hurley himself was a hero and was very important in a number of other incidents beyond his … A few moments later, at 2:50 a.m. on 5 January 1922, Shackleton suffered a fatal heart attack. [71], None of these enterprises prospered, and his main source of income was his earnings from lecture tours. [9] The aim was the conquest of both the geographical South Pole and the South Magnetic Pole. Shackleton's earliest days were spent on his family's farm in Ireland, where he was born on February 15, 1874. Shackleton did it with no equipment or even decent shoes. [145] In Boston, a "Shackleton School" was set up on "Outward Bound" principles, with the motto "The Journey is Everything". After the Nimrod expedition in 1907-09, Shackleton wanted to prove to the world what a great explorer he was. 77510). [38] He was then offered, and accepted, the secretaryship of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society (RSGS), a post which he took up on 11 January 1904. [21] He also participated, with the scientists Edward Adrian Wilson and Hartley Ferrar, in the first sledging trip from the expedition's winter quarters in McMurdo Sound, a journey which established a safe route on to the Great Ice Barrier. Born 15 February 1874, in Kilkea, County Kildare, Ireland, Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was a popular British Antarctic explorer. A new podcast by Dr. Juliana Adelman from the School of History and Geography and Kevin Kenny from the Shackleton Museum in Athy asks What would Shackleton do? As a young boy, his family moved to England where he started his first formal schooling. [68] He had been in discussions with Douglas Mawson about a scientific expedition to the Antarctic coast between Cape Adare and Gaussberg, and had written to the RGS about this in February 1910. During the Nimrod expedition of 1907–1909, he and three companions established a new record Farthest South latitude at 88°S, only 97 geographical miles (112 statute miles or 180 kilometres) from the South Pole, the largest advance to the pole in exploration history. The Imperial Trans-Antarctic expedition of 1914–1917 is considered to be the last major expedition of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. Tom Crean was in more immediate charge as head dog-handler. Shackleton suffered frostbitten fingers as a result. His fondest dream was to make a name for himself. On 9 January 1909, Shackleton and three companions—Wild, Eric Marshall and Jameson Adams—reached a new Farthest South latitude of 88° 23' S, a point only 112 miles (180 km) from the Pole. [35] Instead, he became a journalist, working for the Royal Magazine, but he found this unsatisfactory. [13], The British National Antarctic Expedition, known as the Discovery expedition after the ship Discovery, was the brainchild of Sir Clements Markham, president of the Royal Geographical Society, and had been many years in preparation. [25] Scott chose Shackleton to accompany Wilson and himself on the expedition's southern journey, a march southwards to achieve the highest possible latitude in the direction of the South Pole. [48] In accordance with Shackleton's promise to Scott, the ship headed for the eastern sector of the Great Ice Barrier, arriving there on 21 January 1908. Reality TV Crew: Tim Jarvis in the Footsteps of Shackleton", "Shackleton adventurers complete epic re-enactment voyage", "Adventurer Tim Jarvis survives to tell of his recreation of Sir Ernest Shackleton's Antarctic journey", "Chasing Shackleton: Chasing Shackleton re-aired August 12, 2014", "Statue of Polar explorer Ernest Shackleton unveiled in Athy", "The unveiling of Shackleton statue at Athy, Co. Kildare – Endurance Exhibition", "Ernest Shackleton Loves Me Off Broadway", "Review: A Zany Version of the Romance 'Ernest Shackleton Loves Me' in New Brunswick", https://nzheraldry.wordpress.com/2015/07/13/sir-ernest-shackleton/, "Explorers' century-old whisky found in Antarctic", "Forgotten hero Frank Wild of Antarctic exploration finally laid to rest, beside his 'boss' Sir Ernest Shackleton", "Shackleton's biscuit fetches tasty price", "Historical figures: Ernest Shackleton (1874–1922)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ernest_Shackleton&oldid=994233706, British Army personnel of the Russian Civil War, Collections of the Scott Polar Research Institute, Fellows of the Royal Geographical Society, Fellows of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, Liberal Unionist Party parliamentary candidates, Officers of the Order of the British Empire, Recipients of the Cullum Geographical Medal, Pages containing London Gazette template with parameter supp set to y, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Biodiversity Heritage Library links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with KULTURNAV identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Semantic Scholar author identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TePapa identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (CVO, 1909; MVO 4th Class: 1907), Officer of the Order of the British Empire, Military Division (OBE, 1918), Polar Medal (1904; with clasp for Nimrod Expedition: 1909), Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society of Antwerp (1909), This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 18:49. 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